In recent years, negative attitudes toward Jews have increased in many Western European countries, with France situated at the front of this worrying shift. The expansion of populations who hold anti-Semitic views in Europe is leading to the spread of anti-Jewish stereotypes in the general public discourse. Many European Jews today hide their Jewish identities and are considering emigration.
However, the available data for examining negative attitudes toward Jews do not provide a sufficiently broad or accurate picture of the situation. The tools used by organizations (such as the ADL (Anti-Defamation League) or the Pew Research Center), although thorough and reliable, only give partial glimpses, and at times can even be confusing in understanding anti-Semitic trends in the world. This is because they focus, each in their own way, on only one piece of the anti-Semitism puzzle. Some organizations only look at public opinion. Others only track the number of reported instances of violence or harassment against Jews. Moreover, each organization has defined its own metrics and definitions, which differ from country to country. One European organization (FRA) examines how anti-Semitism is perceived by the Jews themselves. Therefore, the Jewish People Policy Institute (JPPI) developed an integrative measurement that takes into account all the variables.