- As with polarization, divides also relate to gaps between groups. According to Peres and Ben-Rafael (2006), a divide relates to the gaps (breadth) and to the severity of the conflict (depth) between two groups.
Samucha, Sami, “Class, Ethnic and National Divides and Democracy in Israel”, in Uri Ram (ed.), Israeli Society: Critical Perspectives, Brirot Publishing, 1993, pp. 172-202.
Peres, Yohanan, and Ben-Rafael, Eliezer, Proximity and Quarrel – Divides in Israeli Society, Tel Aviv: Am Oved and Sapir Academic College.
- Peres and Ben-Rafael, ibid.
- “Israel’s Religiously Divided Society”, Pew Research Center (2016), https://www.pewforum.org/wp-content/uploads/sites/7/2016/03/Israel-Survey-Full-Report.pdf.
- Central Bureau of Statistics (December 31, 2019): “Population of Israel on the Eve of 2020 – 9.1 Million Residents in the State of Israel”, https://www.cbs.gov.il/he/mediarelease/DocLib/2019/413/11_19_413b.pdf
- Central Bureau of Statistics (October 29, 2019), Media release: “Collection of Data from the 2018 Social Survey, Intergenerational Mobility: Education, Occupation and Changes in Degree of Religiosity”, https://www.cbs.gov.il/he/mediarelease/DocLib/2019/323/19_19_323b.pdf.
- “Jewish People Ways and Means”, published in the 2016 Annual Assessment of the Jewish People Policy Institute, http://jppi.org.il/new/wp-content/uploads/2016/JPPI_2016_Annual_Assessment.pdf
- The Rise of Orthodoxy and Political-Cultural Polarization in the American-Jewish Community, JPPI Annual Assessment, 2016
- Weisberg, Herbert E. 2019. “More Democratic than Liberal.” The Politics of American Jews. Pp. 110-121
- Jones, Robert P., Daniel Cox, Robert Griffin, Molly Fisch-Friedman, and Alex Vandermaas-Peeler, “Emerging Consensus on LGBT Issues- Findings from the 2017 American Values Atlas,” PRRI, 2018
- Pew, Views about Homosexuality among Jews, https://www.pewforum.org/religious-landscape-study/religious-tradition/jewish/views-about-homosexuality/
- Pew, 2015, America’s Changing Religious Landscape.
- Rosner, Shmuel and Ruskay, John, Exploring the Jewish Spectrum in a Time of Fluid Identity. JPPI Annual Assessment, 2016, pp. 67-74.
- Sasson, Theodore, Janet Krasner Aronson, Fern Chertok, Charles Kadushin, and Leonard Saxe. “Millennial Children of Intermarriage: Religious Upbringing, Identification, and Behavior Among Children of Jewish and Non-Jewish Parents.” Contemporary Jewry (2017) 37:99–123
- It is likely that part of the reason for the gap is the separation between Haredim and Modern Orthodox in 2019.