- The discrepancy arises, in part, because while Pew asked direct questions about attitudes toward Jews, ADL surveyed beliefs about Jews.
- Proportion of people saying that the statement ‘Jews have too much power in the business world’ is ‘probably true’. Anti-Defamation League (2014). ADL Global 100: An Index of Anti-Semitism, Executive Summary. (http://global100.adl.org/) See also Anti-Defamation League (2012). Attitudes Toward Jews In Ten European Countries, March. (http://archive.adl.org/anti_semitism/adl_anti-semitism_presentation_february_2012.pdf).
- Bruce Stokes (2015). “Faith in European Project Reviving,” Pew Research Center, 2 June. (http://www.pewglobal.org/2015/06/02/faith-in-european-project-reviving/eu-report-17/)
- CNCDH (2015), Rapport annuel sur le racisme, lâantisémitisme et la xénophobie. (http://www.cncdh.fr/fr/actualite/rapport-annuel-sur-le-racisme-lantisemitisme-et-la-xenophobie).
- For UK, see local national surveys such as Sunday Times, CAA, All-Party Parliamentary Inquiry in Antisemitism. Quoted in Boyd, Jonathan and L. Daniel Staetsky (2015.) “Could it happen here? What existing data tell us about contemporary antisemitism in the UK”, Institute for Jewish Policy Research, May. (http://www.jpr.org.uk/publication?id=4032#.VWT_Ap3n-zc). For France, see Reynié, Dominique (2014). Lâantisémitisme dans lâopinion publique française. Nouveaux éclairages, FONDAPOL – Fondation pour L’Innovation Politique, Novembre. (http://www.fondapol.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/CONF2press-Antisemitisme-DOC-6-web11h51.pdf). For Germany and other continental European countries see Annual Report on Antisemitism for 2014, Kantor Center for the Study of Contemporary European Jewry, p. 51.(http://kantorcenter.tau.ac.il/general-analysis-2014).
- For anti-Semitism among European Muslims, see Koopmans, Ruud (2013). “Fundamentalism and out-group hostility Muslim immigrants and Christian natives in Western Europe.” WZB Berlin Social Science Center, WZB Mitteilungen. (http://www.wzb.eu/sites/default/files/u6/koopmans_englisch_ed.pdf). As the overall majority of violent actions against Jews are perpetrated by Muslims in France, Germany, Belgium and Holland (and a significant part in UK and other European countries), assessing the level of resentment and the level of sympathy to Islamist fundamentalism among the general Muslim population is of special interest. As it appears in the mentioned Fondapol and WZB surveys, fundamentalist Islam and anti-Jewish resentment are widely spread among Europe’s Muslims. While many believe that anti-Semitism is limited to fringe and marginal parts among the general Muslim populations, these studies demonstrate that anti-Semitism is far from being a marginal phenomenon. This finding resonates with the concern and worry indicated in the FRA’s study about the perceptions of anti-Semitism and the will to emigrate among large parts of the Jews in Europe.
- JPR, op. cit. p. 12.
- For UK, see CST – Community Security Trust (2015). Antisemitic Incidents Report 2014. London. For France, see SCPJ – Service de Protection de la Communauté Juive (2015.) Rapport 2014 sur lâantisémitisme en France, Paris.
- CST and SPCJ, op. cit.
- FRA – Fundamental Rights Agency (2013), “Discrimination and hate crime against Jews in EU: experiences and perceptions of antisemitism”, November, European Union. http://fra.europa.eu/en/publications-and-resources/data-and-maps/survey-data-explorer-discrimination-and-hate-crime-against
- FRA, op. cit.