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The Growth of the Haredi Communities in the Diaspora

  1. Jewish Community Study of New York:2011. P. 29. Data concerning contributions is by self-report.
  2. Quoted in the Annual Assessment of the Situation and Dynamics of the Jewish People 2016-5776
  3. Economy and Society, volume 2, Berkeley and Los Angeles 1978, p. 1204.
  4. Lawrence Kaplan, “Daas Torah: A Modern Conception of Rabbinic Authority” in Moshe Sokol (ed.), Rabbinic Authority and Personal Autonomy, Aronson, Northvale N.J. 1992.
  5. This elite orientation expresses itself not only in adhering to exacting standards of behavior but also, to one degree or another, in renunciation, whether of livelihood or recreational pleasures because of the religious demands of Torah study and Halachic observance.
  6. Max Weber’s term.
  7. It was in regard to this situation that Nathan Birnbaum wrote his famous essay אין גלות ביי אידין. (“In Exile among Jews”).
  8. However, there were substantial disagreements concerning tactics.
  9. Gershon Bacon, The Politics of Tradition: Agudath Israel in Poland, 1916-1939, Magnes Press, Jerusalem:1996.
  10. Lawrence Kaplan, “Daas Torah”.
  11. Many attended the night programs of the colleges of the City University of New York.
  12. Agudath Israel was started in the United States during the 1930s. it did not however adopt contemporary Haredi standards of behavior until after the war.
  13. Ravitzky, Aviezer. Messianism, Zionism and Jewish Religious Radicalism, Chicago 1996.
  14. Shlomo Fischer, “Tnuat Shas”, in Adi Ophir (ed.) Fifty to 48: Critical Moments in the History of Israel, Jerusalem, 1999.
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