Rising Streams: Reform and Conservative Judaism in Israel

  1. Tzohar is a national-religious rabbinical organization that seeks to bridge social gaps between religious and secular, and offers a more “user-friendly” marriage option from within the Rabbinate.
  2. JPPI. 2017 Annual Assessment. Section on Bonds Within and Between Communities. Project head: Shlomo Fischer
  3. JPPI. 2016 Annual Assessment. Section on Bonds Within and Between Communities. Project head: Shlomo Fischer
  4. JPPI. 2015 Annual Assessment. Section on Bonds Within and Between Communities. Project head: Shlomo Fischer
  5. For examples, see the following articles: Goldenberg, Tia. “American Reform rabbis warn of alienation from Israel.” Times of Israel. March 1, 2016; Sherwood, Harriet. “Jewish diaspora angry as Netanyahu scraps Western Wall mixed prayer plan.” The Guardian. June 26, 2017; Borschel-Dan, Amanda. “Devastating survey shows huge loss of support among Jewish college students.” Times of Israel. June 21, 2017; Shapiro, Daniel. “Israel and American Jewry: Stepping Back from the Brink.” INSS Insight no. 959. July 31, 2017.
  6. TOI Staff. “At 70, Israel’s population is 8.842 million, 43% of world Jewry.” Times of Israel. April 16, 2018.
  7. The other 25% of non-Jews is comprised of 4.5% non-Arab Christians from the FSU, 15% Muslim Arab, 2% Christian (mostly Arab), 2% Druze and 1% other (Pew 2016).
  8. The Hebrew “Dati-Liberali” translates to liberal-religious. We use liberal-Orthodox for clarity.
  9. Rosner, Shmuel, Popper, Steven W., Slepkov, Noah. “2017 Pluralism Index Survey Results.” JPPI. April 20, 2017.
  10. Pew Research Center. “Israel’s Religiously Divided Society.” March 8, 2016. https://goo.gl/6f9FnH
  11. Pew Research Center. “A Portrait of Jewish Americans.” October 1, 2013. https://goo.gl/gkRzfV
  12. Wolff, Laurence. “The Reform Movement in Israel: Past, Present, and Future.” Institute for Israel Studies, University of Maryland. July 6, 2015.
  13. Cohen, Steven M. “Conservative Jewry’s numbers plummeting, but core engagement steady.” JTA. November 10, 2015.
  14. Wolff, Laurence. Op. Cit.
  15. Hermann, Tamar and Cohen, Chanan. “The Reform and Conservative Movements in Israel: A Profile and Attitudes.” The Israel Democracy Institute. 2013.
  16. Blog Post (Hebrew Characters). Minim, Hearot Ktzarot al Enyanei Datot. “Sheur HaReformim vehaKonservativim Omed al 12% mehatuchlusia?” July 13, 2017. (The Percentage of Reform and Conservative Jews stands at 12% of the population?”)
  17. Rosner, Shmuel. “The number of Conservative/ Reform Jews in Israel goes up (again).” Jewish Journal. July 21, 2015.
  18. Hiddush is non-profit organization that promotes religious freedom and equality in Israel. Its CEO is Rabbi Uri Regev, a prominent Israeli Reform rabbi, who previously served as President of the World Union for Reform Judaism.
  19. Hiddush. “The 2016 Israel Religion and State Index.” April 10, 2016.
  20. The Reform Movement’s study, conducted by the Dialogue Institute, is not yet published. The data was reported to the author by the IMPJ.
  21. We are aware that the Conservative Movement in Israel and around the world, besides the U.S., refers to itself as the Masorti Movement. We will refer to it, in English, as the Conservative Movement, so as not to confuse with Masorti (traditional) Jews.
  22. Wolff. (2015), Op. Cit.
  23. All data in this section, if source is not specified, was provided by Rabbi Gilad Kariv, CEO of the IMPJ, and Dr. Yizhar Hess, CEO of the Masorti (Conservative) Movement of Israel.
  24. Gil, Chaim. (Hebrew Characters). “Mitpalelim b’misparim, netunim statistiim v’shemot batei hakneset.” Mikdash Me’at. February 2, 2014. Published on www.hagabay.net https://goo.gl/TqBGg8
  25. All quotes or information attributed to Rabbi Gilad Kariv are from a series of interviews and electronic correspondence conducted with him by the researcher in preparation for this study, unless otherwise noted.
  26. TALI, as explained by its CEO, Dr. Eitan Chikli, was founded by members of the Conservative Movement but is not officially associated with that movement. In this manner, it is able to gain full cooperation and some funding from the Education Ministry without opposition from Dati and Haredi lawmakers.
  27. Wolff. Op. Cit.
  28. According to Israel’s Education Ministry http://apps.education.gov.il/imsnet/itur.aspx While the number of Haredi schools may seem high as compared to Mamlachti and Mamlachti-Dati schools, this is likely as most Haredi schools are significantly smaller in comparison.
  29. This is a part of the larger Netzer Olami movement, the Zionist youth movement of the Union for Progressive Judaism worldwide, with some 16,000 members in different countries.
  30. Noar Telem (Hebrew Characters). Hatnuah HaReformit: Noar Telem. http://www.reform.org.il/Heb/Youth/Youth.asp (accessed on July 1, 2018)
  31. Wolff. Op. Cit.
  32. The Israel Movement for Reform and Progressive Judaism (IMPJ) Mechina youngleadership program in Jaffa and Holon. http://www.hamechina.org.il/english (accessed on July 1, 2018.)
  33. Hannaton Educational Center. (2018). Mechina at Hannaton. [online] Available at: http://www.echannaton.org/our-programs/hannaton-mechina/ [Accessed July 1, 2018] and http://yachadisrael.org/mechina/list/general/hanaton-12.(Accessed on July 10, 2018)
  34. All data in this section are self-reported by the Reform and Conservative Movements, unless otherwise noted.
  35. Pidyon HaBen is a ceremony in which a first-born son must be symbolically redeemed by the father from a Cohen, a descendent of the priestly tribe, at 30 days old.
  36. This model in the American Jewish community, for example, is also in the process of change.
  37. Rosner, Fuchs. Soon-to-be published study on Israeli Judaism.
  38. Beit Tefila Yisraeli, for example, is a secular Jewish movement that connects to Jewish tradition in non-Orthodox and innovative ways, drawing on Israeli culture. It is similar to Reform Judaism in many practical aspects. See http://btfila.org/)
  39. There are a small number of synagogues and prayer groups (minyanim) forming organically around Israel. These are generally from the liberal reaches of Orthodoxy and seek halachically acceptable (to some) ways to be more inclusive of women in traditional prayer.
  40. We note that, although the Rosner-Fuchs study is based on a relatively large survey of 3000 Jewish Israelis, the level of accuracy of the secondary breakdown (17% of 8% of the total) will naturally be less representative.
  41. It is worthwhile to point out that in the Pew report (p.77), there is a marked difference between the participation levels of American ‘Jews by religion” versus “Jews of no religion”. Thus, while overall, 70% of American Jews participated in a Seder, that number jumps to 78% of “Jews by religion” who did so, but drops to 42% of “Jews of no religion” who participated in a Seder. As expected, 99% of Orthodox participated in a Seder, while 80% of Conservative Jews, 76% of Reform Jews and 47% of Jews of No Denomination did so. Pew Research Center. “A Portrait of Jewish Americans.” October 1, 2013.
  42. Rosner, Shmuel and Prof. Fuchs, Camil. “Who reads the “Haggadah” all the way through?” JPPI. March 27, 2018.
  43. Arian, Asher and Keissar- Sugarman, Ayala. “A Portrait of Israeli Jews: Beliefs, Observance and Values of Israeli Jews 2009.” The Israel Democracy Institute. 2012.
  44. Sharon, Jeremy. “Poll shoes high religious sentiment among religiously traditional and secular Israelis.” Ne’emanei Torah Va’Avodah. August 10, 2016.
  45. Pew Research Center. “Israel’s Religiously Divided Society.” March 8, 2016.
  46. Pew Research Center. “Israel’s Religiously Divided Society: Chapter 11: Intergroup marriage and Friendship.” March 8, 2016 Pew Israel Study
  47. Rosner, Shmuel, Popper, Steven W., Slepkov, Noah. “2017 Pluralism Index Survey Results.” JPPI. April 20, 2017. JPPI 2017 Pluralism Survey
  48. Many secular Israelis are also exposed, often for the first time, to different expressions of Orthodox Judaism outside of Israel, especially Chabad, similarly decreasing their hostility to Jewish practice.
  49. Hermann, Tamar. “The National Religious Sector in Israel 2014: Main Findings.” The Israel Democracy Institute. 2014.
  50. Fischer, Shlomo. “Religious Zionism in Israel Today: Toward the Center”. JPPI 2016 Annual Assessment.
  51. According to my colleague from the JPPI, Dr. Shlomo Fischer.
  52. Rebhun, Uzi and Malach, Gilad. “Demographic Trends in Israel.” The Metzilah Center for Zionist, Jewish, Liberal and Humanist Thought. 2009.
  53. Knesset website. Knesset.gov.il. Parliamentary Groups – United Religious Front. Accessed on 12 July 2018. https://knesset.gov.il/faction/eng/FactionPage_eng.asp?PG=93
  54. Wolff. Op. Cit.
  55. “Israel Rabbinical Program”. 2018. Hebrew Union College – Jewish Institute Of Religion. http://huc.edu/campus-life/jerusalem/israel-rabbinical-program. (Accessed on July 10, 2018)
  56. The Schechter Rabbinical Seminary. http://www.schechter.edu/schechter-rabbinical-seminary/about-the-rabbinical-seminary/(accessed July 1, 2018)
  57. Wolff. Op. Cit.
  58. As described by political scientist Ronald Inglehart – Roser, Max. Materialism and Post-Materialism. Ourowrldindata.org https://ourworldindata.org/materialism-and-post-materialism (accessed on July 1, 2018)
  59. The American Reform Movement was the first major community to adopt patrilineal descent in 1983. The UK adopted patrilineal descent in 2015. This was a recognition of social realities where Reform Jews were intermarrying at high rates. Other communities will accept those of a Jewish father for community involvement but, like in Israel, they must undergo a conversion to marry. Fishkoff, Sue. “Why is patrilineal descent not catching on in Reform worldwide?” Jewish Telegraphic Agency. February 15, 2011.
  60. Werczberger, Rachel and Azulay, Na’ama. “The Jewish Renewal Movement in Israeli Secular Society.” 17 March 2011, Springer Science.
  61. Hoare, Liam. “Reform and Conservative Judaism have failed in Israel. And its Their own fault.” The Tower Magazine. March 2015
  62. Hoare, Liam. Op. Cit.
  63. This issue was raised during the presentation of JPPI’s 2017 Pluralism Index, in which the presentation did not include a representation of how many Israelis identified as Reform or Conservative, much to the dismay of the representatives of those movements who were present. JPPI responded, during the presentation and later in the Times of Israel, that while Israelis often assume Orthodoxy when asking about religiosity, in fact the two are not synonymous and the JPPI study did not look at religious affiliation, only level of religiosity. This will be taken into account in future JPPI surveys. For more, see: Rosner, Shmuel. “JPPI does not leave out Reform and Conservative: Half of Israeli Jews prefer mixed-seating synagogues.” The Times of Israel. April 23, 2017.
  64. All quotes or information attributed to Dr. Yizhar Hess are from interviews and electronic correspondence conducted between he and the researcher in preparation for this study, unless noted.
  65. Conservative Judaism was not a survey option as most Israelis do not grasp the difference between them and generically refer to both as “Reform”.
  66. The Jewish People Policy Institute Pluralism Survey 2016. Rosner, Shmuel and Slepkov, Noah.
  67. We note that this study was conducted in Hebrew, and the results were shared directly with JPPI by the Reform Movement. All translations of questions into English were conducted by JPPI.
  68. Hoffman, Gil. “Majority of Jewish Israelis want egalitarian prayer site at Kotel.” Jerusaelm Post. September 16, 2016.
  69. YNet. (Hebrew Characters). “Seker: Chatuna BaRabanut Marhika et HaYisraelim Menisuim Datiim.” Ynet. September 8, 2016. (“Survey, Rabbinate marriages distance Israelis from religious weddings.”)
  70. JPPI Pluralism in Israel Survey 2016. Rosner, Shmuel and Slepkov, Noah.
  71. Hiddush. “67% of Jewish Israelis Support freedom of choice in marriage.” Hiddush. July 8, 2017.
  72. Ibid.
  73. Hiddush, 2016 Survey.
  74. Hiddush points out the misleading LIBA statistic, as LIBA’s phrasing of the question infers that non-Rabbinate weddings are not official. Regev, Uri. “Fake News? LIBA declares 71% Israelis prefer to marry via Rabbinate!” Hiddush. August 17, 2017.
  75. Ynet. (Hebrew Characters). “Seker: Chatuna Barabanut Marhika et HaYisraelim menisuim datiim.” Yediot Aharonot. August 9, 2016. (Survey: Rabbinate weddings distance Israelis from religious weddings.”
  76. JPPI 2016 Pluralism in Israel Survey. Rosner, Shmuel and Slepkov, Noah.
  77. Sharon, Jeremy. “Poll: Majority support pluralistic prayer at Kotel.” Jerusalem Post. November 3, 2017.
  78. Hiddush. “The 2016 Israel Religion and State Index. October 4, 2016.
  79. To be clear, and as I explain later in the report, such an area has been in use since 2000.
  80. Hiddush. 2016 Religion and State Index. Op. Cit.
  81. Sharon, Jeremy. “Poll: Majority support pluralistic prayer at Kotel.” Jerusalem Post. November 3, 2017.
  82. Rosner, Shmuel. Popper, Steven W., Slepkov, Noah and Dr. Fischer, Shlomo. “JPPI Launches Its Pluralism Index in Israel.” The Jewish People Policy Institute. May 8, 2016.
  83. Hoffman, Gil. “Majority of Jewish Israelis want egalitarian prayer site at Kotel.” Jerusalem Post. September 16, 2016.
  84. Stern, Prof. Yedidia Z. “Religion, state and the Jewish Identity crisis in Israel.” Brookings Institution Center for Middle East Policy. 2017.
  85. Once again, public references tend to specifically refer only to the Reform Movement, often lumping it together with the Conservative Movement.
  86. Landesmann, Carolina. “Reform Jews in exchange for peace.” Haaretz. June 22, 2017.
  87. JTA. “Ultra-Orthodox lawmaker says Reform are ‘not Jews’.” The Forward. November 11, 2015.
  88. Landsmann, Carolina. “Reform Jews in exchange for peace.” Haaretz. June 22, 2017.
  89. JTA. “Ultra-Orthodox lawmaker says Reform are ‘not Jews’.” The Forward. November 11, 2015.
  90. Sharon, Jeremy. “Deri: Non-Orthodox Jewish streams not Judaism.” Jerusalem Post. November 7, 2016.
  91. JTA. “Ultra-Orthodox lawmaker says Reform are ‘not Jews’.” The Forward. November 11, 2015.
  92. Kershner, Isabel. “Israeli Minister says Reform Jews are not really Jewish.” New York Times. July 7, 2015.
  93. Sharon, Jeremy. “’Earthquake caused by Reform, Conservative Jews’ says Shas MK. Jerusalem Post.”July 4, 2018.
  94. Sharon, Jeremy. “Reform Jews are worse than Holocaust deniers, says Chief Rabbi of Jerusalem.” The Jerusalem Post. September 6, 2017.
  95. Ahren, Raphael. “Hillel president apologizes to Hotovely for Princeton slight.” The Times of Israel. November 8, 2017.
  96. TOI Staff. “Jewish Home MK: Reform Judaism is a ‘fake religion’.” The Times of Israel. July 28, 2016.
  97. Most Israelis refer generically to Reform Judaism while meaning either pluralistic movement, and are not aware of the significant ideological differences between the movements.
  98. All quotes or information attributed to Horowitz stem from an interview conducted with him by the researcher, unless otherwise noted.
  99. Manof: Jewish Information Center. (Hebrew).”Who are you Reformers?” 1997
  100. Wikipedia contributors, “Bark Mitzvah,” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bark_Mitzvah
  101. There are two Ultra-Orthodox political parties in Knesset – United Torah Judaism (which represents Ashkenazi Haredim) and Shas (which represents Sephardi Haredim). The Jewish Home party serves the Dati-Leumi public. There are also a number of prominent religious members of the Likkud Party.
  102. “Current Knesset Members”. 2018. Knesset.Gov.Il. https://knesset.gov.il/mk/eng/mkindex_current_eng.asp?view=1.
  103. http://www.mishmar.org.il/rp.php?rpid=141
  104. Hiddush. (Hebrew characters) “Be’ekvot ma’avak hiddush, hayoamash hechlit lemanot 30% nashim bamoatzot datiot.” Hiddush. 2018 https://goo.gl/2SBzLG. (accessed on July 1, 2018)
  105. There are organizations, like Shatil, who track the level of involvement of women in the public sphere, but no organization, including the Reform and Conservative Movements, who track the involvement of Reform and Conservative Jews on this level.
  106. Ironically, the Reform Movement noted that its hostels maintain an official kashrut certificate from the Rabbinate, so that they can attract Orthodox guests as well.
  107. Hoare, Liam. Op. Cit.
  108. Avital, Tomer. “Revealed: The Hidden Cost of Israel’s Public Spending on Religious Services.” Haaretz. April 14, 2016. https://goo.gl/XAQj7t
  109. The exchange rate per 1 USD, at time of publishing (October 2018), stood at around 3.65 NIS.
  110. “Chief Rabbinate of Israel Law Of 1980”. 2018. Knesset.Gov.Il. https://www.knesset.gov.il/review/data/heb/law/kns9_rabbinate.pdf.
  111. According to Hess of the Conservative Movement and Kariv of the Reform Movement, communities numbering between 50-250 members warrant partial (half) funding while communities of over 250 warrant full funding. Communities must conduct religious activity, prayer or study, on at least 40 Shabbatot each year, and on all major Jewish holidays.
  112. As estimated by the movements.
  113. The Conservative Movement estimate is based on a rough extrapolation of the number of conversions in the Los Angeles area, undertaken by the head of that movement. The statistic on Reform conversions was extrapolated by JPPI based on Pew Research Center data. Neither movement keeps country-wide or global conversion statistics. Heilman, Uriel. “Conversion to Judaism: Denomination by Denomination.” Haaretz/ JTA. October 9, 2014.
  114. Heilman, Uriel. “9 Things to know about Reform Jews.” The Times of Israel. November 3, 2015.
  115. 2018. Reform.Org.Il. http://www.reform.org.il/Assets/reformdatumedinah-gyur.pdf.
  116. Nativ. (Hebrew characters). Al Hagiyur. 2018. https://goo.gl/4oMY6v (accessed July 1, 2018)
  117. All information attributed to Ish Shalom resulted from an interview conducted with him by the author, unless otherwise specified.
  118. According to official conversion data, as presented in Netanel Fisher’s publication, a significant portion of converts through 2015 were Ethiopian in any of the given years. The NATIV program explained to the author that by this point, the majority of eligible converts of Ethiopian origin were converted, thus explaining the sudden drop in overall conversion numbers. The statistics further specify converts from the former Soviet Union – roughly two-thirds in 2016 – and those not of Ethiopian origin nor from the former Soviet Union – roughly one-third. Fisher, Netanel and Stern, Yedidia. Editors. “Conversion in Israel: Vision, Achievements and Challenges.” The Israel Democracy Institute. 2018. (Hebrew). Page 141.
  119. Friedman, Shuki. (Hebrew characters). “Estrategia Leumit Legiyur.” The Israel Democracy Institute. June 6, 2016. (National Conversion Strategy)
  120. In an interview conducted with him by the author.
  121. Ettinger, Yair. “State Comprtroller’s Annual Report// Israel’s Spending on Conversion to Judaism Increased, as Number of Converts Declined.” Haaretz. May 7, 2013.
  122. Ettinger, Yair. (Hebrew characters)”Bagatz menapetz et monopol harabanut: giyurim pratiim yukru beyisrael.”Haaretz. March 31, 2016. (Supreme court shatters Rabbinate monopoly: private conversions will be recognized in Israel.)
  123. Maltz, Judy. “New Bill would reject all Israeli conversions performed outside Orthodox-sanctioned State system.” Haaretz. May 11, 2017.
  124. Sales, Ben. “Israel’s controversial conversion bill, explained.” The Times of Israel. June 29, 2017.
  125. TOI Staff. “Netanyahu announces six month delay of controversial conversion bill.” Times of Israel. June 30, 2017.
  126. Feferman, Dan and Rosner, Shmuel. “Putting the Kotel Decision in Context – Implications and Steps Forward.” JPPI 2017 Annual Assessment. https://goo.gl/XNYWn8
  127. TOI Staff. “Netanyahu announces six month delay of controversial conversion bill.” Times of Israel. June 30, 2017.
  128. Ravid, Barak. “Netanyahu appoints former justice minister to review Israel’s conversion policy.” Haaretz. August 16, 2017.
  129. Keinon, Herb. “Proposed bill would accept all Jewish conversions from abroad.” Jerusalem Post. June 3, 2018.
  130. Kariv, Gilad. “What’s New? Rabbi Gilad Kariv Responds to the Nissim Commission conversion recommendations.” Israel Movement for Reform and Progressive Judaism website. June 4, 2018
  131. Sharon, Jeremy. “Conversion proposals dead on arrival after Haredi rejection.” Jerusalem Post. June 3, 2018.
  132. By Jewish law, women may only immerse in the mikveh after sunset.
  133. Newman, Marissa. “Knesset approves law to bar non-Orthodox from ritual baths.” Times of Israel. July 26, 2016.
  134. Conducting an illegal marriage can meet with a prison term of up to two years. To date, no one has been prosecuted for participating in such a wedding ceremony, although, for the first time, a Conservative rabbi was brought in for questioning by the police and promptly released following public outcry. See: Sharon, Jeremy. “International Outrage as Rabbi Grilled for Officiating Masorti Weddings.” Jerusalem Post. July 19, 2018.
  135. Hiddush and Panim statistics
  136. Those “of no religion” is a definition in the Israeli Interior Ministry, and refers to the roughly 350,000 Israelis, mostly from the former Soviet Union, who are not considered Jewish by Halacha, although they consider themselves nationally and socially Jewish.
  137. (Hebrew Characters) “Misrad Hamishpatim – Rishum bamirsham hazugiut. 2018. Gov.il. https://www.gov.il/he/service/registration_in_the_conjugality_registrar. http://www.justice.gov.il/Units/RasamHazugiut/MarriageRegistrar/Pages/MarriageRegistrar.aspx
  138. Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. Table of Israelis who marry abroad – 2000-2016. https://goo.gl/bCzhMu
  139. Leskin, Paige. “Where is same-sex marriage legal? Here’s the full list right now.” Inverse. November 15, 2017. https://goo.gl/ppQyJF
  140. Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. “Selected Data on the Occasion of Tu B’Av.” Press release. August 6, 2017. https://goo.gl/5F136u
  141. “How We Can Help | Tzohar”. 2018. Tzohar.Org.Il. http://www.tzohar.org.il/English/what-we-do/.
  142. Brom, Jotam. (Hebrew characters). “Tiksei nisuin yehudiim beyisrael mechutz larabanut harashit.” Panim: The Israeli Judaism Network. April 2018. (Jewish Wedding Ceremonies outside of the Chief Rabbinate.)
  143. The data was obtained by Yotam Brom of Panim directly from the Population Registry, and conducted together with the author.
  144. Asklaw. Balas, Yaakov. (Hebrew Characters). “Yeduim Batzibur: kol ma sheratzita ladaat al noseh hayeduim batzibur. Accessed July 11, 2018. https://goo.gl/7YtWps (“Recognized in the public: all you wanted to know about the topic of “recognized in the public”.)
  145. Bar-Lev, Adv. Kinneret. (Hebrew Characters). “Yeduim Batsibur: zchuyotehem shel zudu, chad minim.” Yediot Acharonot. November 17, 2011.
  146. According to Jewish law, the Rabbinate cannot be fully sure a Jewish couple did not inadvertently enter into a legal Jewish marriage contract. Thus, if a Jewish woman divorces her husband civilly and seeks to marry anew, the lack of a verified Jewish divorce can have significant implications on the Jewish legal status of the woman and any subsequent offspring. Therefore, the Rabbinate insists that even couples that wed abroad in a civil ceremony must undergo a divorce through their auspices.
  147. Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. “Press Release – Families and Households in Israel – Family Day.” February 13, 2007. And, Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. “Press Release – Families and Households in Israel – Family Day 2010.” February 10, 2010.
  148. Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. “Press Release – Families and Households in Israel – Data for Family Day.” February 2, 2011.
  149. Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. “Media Release – Family Day – Families and Households in Israel.” February 7, 2016. And, Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. (Hebrew Characters). “Hoda’a latikshoret – Family Day – Families and Households in Israel.” February 21, 2017.
  150. Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. (Hebrew Characters). “Hoda’a latikshoret – Family Day – Families and Households in Israel.” February 13, 2018.
  151. Hiddush. “55% Jewish Israelis interested in weddings outside the Chief Rabbinate.” Hiddush. May 11, 2017.
  152. Ynet. (Hebrew Characters) “Seker: Chatuna BaRabanut Marhika et Hayisraelim menisuin datiim.” Yediot Acharonot. August 9, 2016.
  153. In an interview conducted with her by the author.
  154. She notes that the 5000 figure is an estimate as Havaya’s record keeping was irregular in their first years.
  155. Brom, Yotam. “Jewish Wedding Ceremonies outside the Rabbinate.” Panim. April 2018.
  156. Chalutz, Dina. (Hebrew Characters) “Mahapacha barechov hadati: Zugot bochrim lehitchaten bli hitarvut shel harabanut.” XNet LaIsha. March 6, 2016.
  157. Thus, in Jewish law, a man must agree to grant his wife a “gett”, or divorce document. There are numerous cases where men refuse their wife this document. Similarly, if a man is in a vegetative state or is missing (presumed dead but no body can be found), then the woman is considered an “aguna” and cannot remarry unless released by a rabbinical court.
  158. This is an estimate for yearly numbers for the past few years, based mostly on self-reported statistics.
  159. Brom, Yotam. Op. Cit.
  160. For an in-depth analysis of the Kotel issue as regards religious pluralism, see JPPI’s 2017 publication, written by Dan Feferman and Shmuel Rosner. https://goo.gl/gNxq9d
  161. Jewish Week Editors. “Kotel Deal Unraveling. Who to blame?” The New York Jewish Week. April 13, 2016.
  162. Klein, Tzvika. (Hebrew Characters) “HaNegbi mona leachrai al hamum lamitveh hakotel.”NRG – Makor Rishon. February 28, 2017.
  163. Shlezinger, Yehuda. (Hebrew Characters) “HaRabanut Harashit tokefet et mikveh hakotel.” Yisrael Hayom. June 18, 2017.
  164. Sharon, Jeremy. “In stinging blow to diaspora Jewry, government reneges on Western Wall deal.” Jerusalem Post. June 26, 2017.
  165. JTA News Brief. “Haredi Orthodox parties propose resolution to cancel Western Wall egalitarian agreement.” Jewish Telegraphic Agency. June 19, 2017.
  166. JNS.org. “US Jewish leaders express outrage after Israel’s western wall prayer plaza decision. The Algemeiner. June 27, 2018.
  167. Wilner, Michael. “Trump Admin. Wants resolution to Kotel Crisis, US Official Says.” Jerusalem Post. June 29, 2017.
  168. Ahren, Raphael. “Netanyahu defends freezing Western Wall deal, Israel’s religious status quo.” Times of Israel. September 19, 2017.
  169. JTA News Brief. “Netanyahu says non-Orthodox Jews used Western Wall deal to gain recognition.” Jewish Telegraphic Agency. September 19, 2017.
  170. Hoffman, Gil. “Majority of Jewish Israelis want Egalitarian prayer site at Kotel.” Jerusalem Post. September 16, 2016.
  171. Pileggi, Tamar. “Poll says most Israelis against Western Wall decision, conversion bill.” Times of Israel. June 29, 2017.
  172. Sharon, Jeremy. “Nearly two-thirds of Israelis support equal prayer rights at Western Wall.” Jerusalem Post. May 24, 2017.
  173. Sharon, Jeremy. “Poll: Majority support pluralistic prayer at kotel.” Jerusalem Post. November 3, 2017.
  174. Liba Center. “Adoption of the Adivosry Team’s Recommendations on prayer arrangements at the Western Wall: Israeli Government Decision 1075.”
  175. Adamkar, Yaki. (Hebrew Characters) Bagatz: Halich Hakpaat mitveh hakotel meorer sheelot. Mah karah po?” Walla Chadashot. August 31, 2017.
  176. Traditionally, students were taught Torah and Oral Torah, but little in the ways of Jewish philosophy, practice or tradition.
  177. Information on TALI is from an interview conducted with TALI CEO Dr. Eytan Shikli by the author, unless otherwise specified.
  178. Information on Meitarim is from an interview conducted with Meitraim CEO Ranit Hyman by the author, unless otherwise specified.
  179. Information on Oranim is from an interview conducted with Educational director, Ilana Abu Golan by the author, unless otherwise specified.
  180. (Hebrew characters). “Makom” – Tochnit maarachtit lehitchadshut Yehudit bveit hasefer uvakehila” Oranim.ac.il. 2018 (accessed on July 8, 2018.) https://goo.gl/d97RN1
  181. (Hebrew characters). “Mi Anachnu”: Oranim.ac.il. 2018. https://goo.gl/dKT5kT
  182. Institute, Shalom. 2018.(Hebrew characters) “Machon Shalom Hartman – Odot – Be’eri”. Beeri.Hartman.Org.Il. https://goo.gl/oA2Z7J
  183. “Burial – How Much Will It Cost? | ITIM”. 2018. Itim.Org.Il. http://www.itim.org.il/en/burial-much-will-cost/.
  184. (Hebrew characters). “Hatnuah leyahadut mitkademet beyisrael: Tiksei maagal hachaim – kvura beyisrael veavelut.” Reform.Org.il. 2018. http://www.reform.org.il/Heb/Services/Traditions/Memory.asp
  185. Ibid.
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