- Respectively, 81% of the population in Greece, 72% in Spain, 69% in UK, 64% in Cyprus, 62% in Sweden, 60% in Czech Republic, 59% in Germany and 58% in Portugal “tend not to trust the EU.” See Torreblanca, Jose Ignacio and Mark Leonard, “The Continent-wide rise of Euroscepticism”. Standard Eurobarometer 2012. http://www.ecfr.eu/page/-/Methodological_note_Euroscepticism.pdf
- Questions such as “How best can world Jewry provide European Jews with support? Should the Jewish people and Israel help them to emigrate or strengthen their efforts to sustain the local communities?” have been addressed extensively in previous JPPI policy papers. See in particular: “European Jewry – Signals and Noise” and “JPPI’s Emergency Plan for French Aliyah” on JPPI’s website.
- The nationalism of right-populist parties is based on defending the “alleged” nation, less on attacking another country’s achievements. This is a crucial departure from prominent nationalist movements of the 20th century. Thus, the term “neonationalism” is used consciously.
- Lochocki, Timo, The Unstoppable Far Right? (Europe Policy Papers), German Marshall Fund of the United States, 2014. http://www.gmfus.org/publications/unstoppable-far-right
- Despite its bi-millenary presence in Europe, Judaism has always been perceived, by philo-Semites and by anti-Semites alike, as a heterogeneous cultural ferment that both fosters creativity (when it is present in moderate doses) and is destructive (when the dosage is too high) in relation to the “authentic” Christian core of the European culture. Aware of this ambivalence, local Jews, mutatis mutandis – certainly in a more discreet manner in Switzerland and in a relatively more assertive manner in France and Britain – are careful to avoid “too high” a political profile. Tied up by a kind of unwritten conditional citizenship contract and fearing accusations of clannishness or ethnocentric “tribalism,” or even re-awakening the old dual loyalty claim, European Jews – unlike other groups – have seldom dared to initiate a political pan-European lobby to advance their interests. Facing political and economic difficulties in its on-going integration process, the emergent European political entity is the throes of a quest for identity – to determine what exactly it means to be “a European”. Are there common core values that make Europeans unique and are there values Europeans definitively reject? Built after centuries of ethno-religious and bloody national conflicts, the basic ethos of the European Union is that strong ethno-religious and national identities are better avoided. In this context, Jewish and Israeli exceptionalisms are perceived with suspicion.
- Reynié, Dominique. L’antisémitisme dans l’opinion publique française. Nouveaux éclairages, Fondapol, November 2014. http://www.fondapol.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/CONF2press-Antisemitisme-DOC-6-web11h51.pdf
- Koopmans, Ruud. “Fundamentalism and out-group hostility Muslim immigrants and Christian natives in Western Europe.” WZB Berlin Social Science Center, WZB Mitteilungen, December 2013. http://www.wzb.eu/sites/default/files/u6/koopmans_englisch_ed.pdf
- Wikipedia. “List of cities in the European Union by Muslim population” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_cities_in_the_European_Union_by_Muslim_population
- Wodak, Ruth (4 March 2014). “Right wing populist parties on the rise”. Cyprus Mail. http://cyprus-mail.com/2014/03/04/right-wing-populist-parties-on-the-rise/
- Primor, Adar. “The unholy alliance between Israel’s Right and Europe’s anti-Semites,” Haaretz, December, 12, 2010. http://www.haaretz.com/print-edition/opinion/the-unholy-alliance-between-israel-s-right-and-europe-s-anti-semites-1.330132
- Camus, Jean Yves. “The French Extreme Right, Anti-Semitism and Anti-Zionism” in Mammone, Andrea, Varieties of Right-wing Extremism in Europe, 2012.
- Some authors such as Alexandre Del Valle have suggested that there exists a “Red-Brown-Green” alliance of the Far Left, the Far Right and the Islamists, based upon a common hatred of Israel and the Jews, of Liberalism and the United States, and of the West in general. Valle, Alexandre del. “La convergence des totalitarismes, ou les nouveaux visages rouge-bruns-verts de l’antisémitisme,” l’Observatoire du monde Juif, September 5, 2002.
- Fourquet, Jérôme. “Ce que révèle l’étude du poids démographique et du comportement électoral des Juifs de France,”Atlantico, September 15, 2014. http://www.atlantico.fr/rdv/politico-scanner/exclu-que-revele-etude-poids-demographique-et-comportement-electoral-juifs-france-ifop-jerome-fourquet-1732451.html#xzgBPimwMpyJEpti.99
- Lerman, Anthony, “9/11 and the destruction of the shared understanding of anti-Semitism,” Opendemocracy, 2011. https://www.opendemocracy.net/antony-lerman/911-and-destruction-of-shared-understanding-of-antisemitism
- Ahren, Raphael, “Jerusalem troubled by rise of far right in European election,” Times of Israel, May 27, 2014. http://www.timesofisrael.com/jerusalem-troubled-by-rise-of-far-right-in-european-election/