For an in-depth understanding of the rampant social exclusion phenomenon in Europe, see Amar J. (2013), Les identités religieuses au miroir des droits de l’homme, contribution à une sociologie des droits de l’homme, Presses Academiques Francophones, Paris, pp. 415-428. Special thanks to Dr. Jacques Amar for his contribution to the analysis of the situation in Europe.
Bundesamt für Verfassungsschutz, Antisemitismus im Islamismus, April 2019, https://www.verfassungsschutz.de/de/oeffentlichkeitsarbeit/publikationen/pb-islamismus/broschuere-2019-03-antisemitismus-im-islamismus
Johnson A., Institutionally Antisemitic Contemporary Left Antisemitism and the Crisis in the British Labour Party, A Fathom publication, March 2019. http://fathomjournal.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/Institutionally-Antisemitic-Report-for-event.pdf
Karsenty Y., Anti-Semitism in 2018, overview, trends and events, January 2019, Ministry of Diaspora. http://antisemitism.mda.gov.il/en/office-publications/
Staetsky, L. D., Antisemitism in contemporary Great Britain A study of attitudes towards Jews and Israel, JPR, September 2017. ‘Antisemitism in contemporary Great Britain: A study of attitudes towards Jews and Israel’.
Ifop op.cit. See also Koopmans, Ruud. “Fundamentalism and out-group hostility Muslim immigrants and Christian natives in Western Europe.” WZB Berlin Social Science Center, WZB Mitteilungen, December 2013.
France: The number of recorded anti-Semitic violent incidents (attack or attempted attack, homicide or attempted homicide, violence, arson or attempted arson, defacement or vandalism) increased by 89 percent with 183 incidents (compared to 97 in 2017). Within the violent incidents category, anti-Semitic physical violence against persons increased by 170 percent with 81 incidents (30 in 2017). The number of recorded anti-Semitic threats (oral threats, threatening gestures or insults, flyers and hate mail, graffiti) increased by 67 percent with 358 incidents compared to 214 in 2017. 824 Jewish community sites are subject to protection by police security and military forces.
Community Security Trust (UK), ANTISEMITIC INCIDENTS Report 2018 p. 10. https://cst.org.uk/data/file/2/9/Incidents%20Report%202018%20-%20web.1549538710.pdf
Source: Kantor Center – European Jewry and Antisemitism Database. P.71. The total number of recorded anti-Semitic manifestations (according to the official governmental data) in Germany for the year 2018 indicates an overall rise of at least 10 percent. 1646 anti-Semitic crimes were reported, including 62 acts of violence (that left 43 people injured) – a rise of almost 70 percent, in comparison to 2017, when 1504 anti-Semitic crimes, including 37 violent incidents, were registered.
Experiences and perceptions of antisemitism Second survey on discrimination and hate crime against Jews in the EU, EU Agency for Fundamental Rights’ (FRA), December 2018. https://fra.europa.eu/sites/default/files/fra_uploads/fra-2018-experiences-and-perceptions-of-antisemitism-survey_en.pdf
The percentage of French Jews considering emigration has decreased since the 2012 survey. During this period, more than 25,000 French Jews have relocated to Israel (7.5% of the French Jewry) and several additional dozens of thousands to other countries.
McAuley, James (28 March 2018), “The brutal killing of a Holocaust survivor raises anti-Semitism fears in France”. Washington Post. https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/europe/frances-jewish-leaders-raise-the-alarm-over-brutal-murder-of-holocaust-survivor/2018/03/26/28cf8686-30f4-11e8-8abc-22a366b72f2d_story.html?noredirect
Major elements of this typology is inspired by the excellent following JPR research report. The conclusions are ours see Dencik L. and K. Maros, Different Antisemitisms: perceptions and experiences of antisemitism among Jews in Sweden and across Europe, JPR, London, 2017 https://www.jpr.org.uk/documents/JPR_2017._Different_Antisemitisms_in_Sweden_and_across_Europe.pdf
Maimon D., “Re-Emergence of the Jewish Diasporistic Identity in Europe”, JPPI 2017 Annual Assessment, pp. 147-155. http://jppi.org.il/new/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/Re Emergence_of_a_Diasporistic_Jewish_Identity_in_Europe-JPPI_AA_2017.pdf
Fischer S., The Rise of Orthodoxy and Cultural-Political Polarization within the Jewish Community in the US, JPPI 2017 Annual Assessment, pp. 131-142. http://jppi.org.il/new/en/article/aa2017/part-2-dimensions-of-jewish-well-being/identity/the-rise-of-orthodoxy/#.W0PYgtLXI2w
ADL Global 100 (2014) and update about 19 countries (2015), Anti-Defamation League, An Index of Anti-Semitism, Executive Summary. http://global100.adl.org/, PEW research center, Religion & Public Life, February 2017.
PEW research center, Religion & Public Life, February 2011.
op. cit. US Anti-Semitic Incidents Surged in 2018.
The choices posed as responses in the lay survey were, “Mainly reflects the increase in mass shootings” (7.8%), “Mainly reflects the increase in attacks on churches, synagogues and mosques” (19.5%), “Reflects in a similar manner the increase in mass killings and heightened anti-Semitism” (53.9%), “Mainly reflects heightened anti-Semitism” (15.6%) and “None of the above” (3.1%). Rabbis were not presented with the second of these choices. There responses were, respectively, 61.9% [increase in mass killings], 35.7% [mass killings and anti-Semitism], 2.38% [anti-Semitism] and 0%.