The past year was tumultuous for Israel, marked by three major events: the continuing coronavirus pandemic and its consequences; a fourth round of elections within two years and the resulting change of government; and a round of fighting in Gaza, accompanied by violent confrontations between Jews and Arabs within Israel. Against the background of these occurrences, we present data gathered largely within the framework of the Jewish People Policy Institute’s Pluralism Index, with some data from other sources as well.1 The data relate to three main issues:
- Internal agreements and contradictions in understanding Israel as a Jewish and democratic state.
- Tensions between Haredim and non-Haredim in the Jewish sector.
- A sense of partnership between Jews and Arabs against the background of the recent elections and unrest.