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India, Israel and the Jewish People

  1. The use of the word “Asia” throughout the chapter will refer to the entire Asia-Pacific region at the exclusion of West Asia, or what we call the Middle East.
  2. Ahmed Zaki Yamani, quoted in Robert Manning, “The Asian Energy Predicament,” Survival Vol. 42, No. 3 (2000), 80.
  3. Major Mideast producers refer to Saudi Arabia, Iran, the United Arab Emirates, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar and Libya. See: Annual Statistical Bulletin 1999 (Vienna: OPEC, 1999): 79-84; Annual Statistical Bulletin 2015 (Vienna: OPEC, 2015), 54.
  4. Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries, World Oil Outlook 2010 (Austria, Vienna: OPEC Secretariat, 2010), 219.
  5. International Energy Agency, “World Energy Outlook 2012 Factsheet – How will global energy markets evolve to 2035?,” available at
  7. Ibid
  8. Statistics compiled from data provided by the International Energy Agency, available at
  9. In 2012, according to the US Energy Information Administration, China consumed almost four billion short tons of coal versus around 800 million by India; China consumed over 10 billion barrels of oil per day vs over 3.6 billion by India; China consumed over 500 billion cubic feet of natural gas, vs. around 200 billion by India; and China consumed 797 billion kilowatt hours of renewable energy vs. 162 billion from India. Information aggregated by the Konrad Adenauer Stiftung’s Climate Change In Asia project
  10. International Energy Agency Statistics
  11. International Energy Agency, World Energy Outlook 2007 – China and India Insights (Paris: OECD/IEA, 2007), 573-585.
  12. International Energy Agency, World Energy Outlook 2014
  13. BGR 2011
  15. According to recent data, Iran, allowed to export oil without restrictions after sanctions were dropped, is once again India’s fifth largest crude oil supplier, with Kuwait dropping to six. Saudi Arabia is the fourth largest, with Iraq third, Nigeria the second largest and Venezuela the largest supplier.
  16. V.S. Naipaul, India: A Wounded Civilization, London: Picador, 2002, IX. First publ. London: Andre Deutsch, 1977.
  17. Utpal Bhaskar, “India and Israel move to expand cooperation on energy security”, 26.11.2015
  18. World Trade Organization, International Trade and Market Access Data,
  20. Statistics compiled from data provided by: Government of India, Ministry of Commerce & Industry, Export-Import Data Bank, available at
  21. Statistics compiled provided by: United Nations Statistics Division, Commodity Trade Statistics Database, available at
  22. Data supplied by the Saudi Arabian General Investment Authority (SAGIA).
  23. Reserve Bank of India, “Indian Investment Abroad in Joint Ventures and Wholly Owned Subsidiaries: 2009-2010 (April-March),” Monthly Bulletin (July 13, 2010).
  25. Data provided by the Dubai Multi Commodities Centre Authority (DMCC), quoted in: Shane McGinley, “Fifth of firms in Dubai’s JLT are Indians,” May 6, 2012, available at
  26. Government of India, Ministry of Commerce and Industry, Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion, FDI Statistics (August 2015).
  27. Abdullah Al-Shayji, “Learning to dance with India,” Gulfnews, October 18, 2010.
  28. Geoffrey Kemp, The East Moves West: India, China and Asia’s Growing Presence in the Middle East, Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 2010, 11-12.
  29. A. Rahman, “Indian Labour Migration to West Asia: trends and effects,” Manpower Journal Vol. 35, No. 2 (1999); S. I. Rajan, “From Kerala to the Gulf: Impacts of Labour Migration,” Asian and Pacific Migration Journal Vol. 13, No. 4 (2004).
  30. Kohli, Neha. “Indian Migrants in the Gulf Countries.” Developments in the Gulf Region: Prospects and Challenges for India in the Next Two Decades. Ed. Rumel Dahiya. Institute for Defence Studies and Analysis (IDSA), 2014.; Tanvi Madan, “Why is India’s Modi visiting Saudi Arabia?” Brookings, Middle East Politics and Policy, April 1, 2016
  31. Ibid.
  32. Government of India, Ministry of Overseas Indian Affairs, 2012, Annual Report 2011-2012, 35.
  34. Zongyuan (Zoe) Liu, “Rising Chinese Waves in the UAE”, Middle East Institute, August 05, 2015
  36. In Kerala for instance, remittances – the majority of which come from the Gulf region – constituted over twenty percent of the state’s gross domestic product in 2003. S. Irudaya Rajan and K.C. Zachariah, Remittances and its Impact on the Kerala Economy and Society, The Netherlands: Institute of Social Studies, August 2007. Refer also to: K.P. Kannan and K.S. Hari, Kerala’s Gulf Connection: Emigration, Remittances and their Macroeconomic Impact 1972-2000 (India, Trivendrum: Centre for Development Studies, March 2002).
  37. Nasra M. Shah, Restrictive Labour Immigration Policies in the Oil-Rich Gulf: Effectiveness and Implications for Sending Asian Countries, New York: United Nations, May 2006.
  38. Andrzej Kapiszewski, Arab Versus Asian Migrant Workers in the GCC Countries, New York: United Nations, May 2006.
  39. Embassy of the United Arab Emirates, New Delhi, India. Economic and Trade,
  40. The Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life, Mapping the Global Muslim Population, Washington, D.C.: Pew Research Center, October 2009, 5, 28, 29.
  41. Richard M. Eaton, “Temple desecration in pre-modern India,” Frontline Vol. 17, No. 25, December,2000.
  42. Address by the Prime Minister of India Dr. Manmohan Singh to the Majlis Al-Shura, March 01, 2010,
  43. P.R. Kumaraswamy, India’s Israel Policy, New York: Columbia University Press, 2010, 70.
  44. Mahatma Gandhi, “Notes,” Young India, April 6, 1921.
  45. Howard M. Sachar, A History of Israel from the Rise of Zionism to our Time, New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2010,107.
  46. Letter of September 16, 1945, quoted in Howard Sachar, A History of Israel: 256-257.
  47. K.M. Panikkar, A Memorandum on Hindu-Zionist Relations, quoted in Kumaraswamy, op. cit. 82.
  48. Kumaraswamy, op. cit., 83.
  49. Hasan Suroor, “West Asia policy hostage to ‘Muslim vote’,” The Hindu (March 15, 2011),
  50. U.S. Embassy in New Delhi, Cable 58913: India balancing relations with Hamas and Israel, March 31, 2006, published in The Hindu,
  51. U.S. Embassy in New Delhi, Cable 73697: “Indian Muslim resentment smouldering over Lebanon and Gaza,” August 4, 2006, published in The Hindu,
  52. U.S. Embassy in New Delhi, Cable 195906: “Indians views on engaging Iran,” March 9, 2009, published in The Hindu,
  53. Raja Karthikeya, “India’s Iran calculus,” Foreign Policy, September 24, 2010; Teresita Schaffer and Suzanne Fawzi, “India and Iran: Limited Partnership, High Stakes,” South Asia Monitor No. 114 (Washington, D.C.: Center for Strategic and International Studies) December 20, 2007; Harsh V. Pant, “A Fine Balance: India Walks a Tightrope between Iran and the United States,” Orbis, Summer 2007; Kumaraswamy, “India’s Persian problems,” Center for Contemporary Conflict, 2008.
  54. Geoffrey Kemp, op. cit., 23.
  55. Ibid.
  56. P.R. Kumaraswamy, “… but Iran is a difficult customer,” Middle East Institute New Delhi, Dateline MEI, Issue No. 12, January 3, 2011.
  57. Nicolas Blarel, “Recalibrating India’s Middle East Policy,” Carnegie India, April 18, 2016 (
  58. P.R. Kumaraswamy, India’s Israel Policy, op. cit., 250.
  59. Ibid 260.